SAMPLE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

MODEL QUESTIONS FROM THE FIRST UNIT GLIMPSES OF GREATNESS

  1. NARRATING EXPERIENCE FROM YOUR LIFE.
  2. PREPARE SUITABLE CAPTIONS FOR PICTURES
  3. EXPRESS VIEWS IN A SPEECH
  4. PREPARE REVIEWS AND APPRECIATIONS ON PASSAGES AND POEMS
  5. PREPARE PROFILE
  6. NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES
  7. WRITING LETTERS AND E MAIL
  8. PREPARE INTERVIEW(QUESTIONS AND RESPONSES)
  9. COMPREHENSION OF A PASSAGE
  10. EDIT THE PASSAGE
  11. PREPARE TREE DIAGRAM AND TIME LINE
  12. PREPARE NOTES ON A PASSAGE
  13. USAGE OF COHESIVE DEVICES AND COLLOCATIONS
  14. USAGE OF CONDITIONALS

COHESIVE DEVICES: You can use words or short phrases which help to guide your reader through your writing, and to link sentences, paragraphs and sections both forwards and backwards. Good use will make what you have written easy to follow; bad use might mean your style is disjointed, probably with too many short sentences, and consequently difficult to follow. Your mark could be affected either way.
The best way to “get a feel” for these words are through your reading. Most textbooks and articles are well-written and will probably include a lot of these cohesive devices. Note how they are used and try to emulate what you have read. Do make sure though that you fully understand their meaning: incorrect use could change completely what you’re trying to say. Try to use a variety of expressions, particularly in longer pieces of writing.
Don’t forget “AND”! Two short sentences are often best connected together with this little word.

Always ask yourself what the exact relationship is between the sentences or parts of sentences. Are you leading to the result of something? Are you making a deduction? Are you introducing some contradictory evidence or ideas? Your choice of word or phrase obviously depends on this. And always check in a good dictionary if you’re not quite sure about a word’s use or its position in a sentence. Remember that punctuation will affect what you use.

Insert the best alternative

1 Polls show that Tony Blair is the most popular Prime Minister this century. ______________ , there are even members    of his own party who are uneasy with his approach.

In particular However For instance

2 There are some slight variations in temperature, but ________________ 26 to 27ºC should be expected.

consequently otherwise as a rule

3 The two main Channel Islands, ________________ Jersey and Guernsey, are much closer to France than to England.

for example namely in particular

4 It was announced that nurses’ working hours would be increased by 25%. ______________ , even fewer trainee nurses     are expected to join the profession.

As a result So that Likewise

5 Sales of CDs have experienced a small but steady fall over the past 12 months. _____________ , vinyl records have    seen an increase in their share of the market, up to 1.7%.

Above all Correspondingly In contrast

6 The Vice Chancellor explained that in light of the current financial climate and because of unexpected bad debts, it would be necessary to peg salary levels at their current level for all grades of staff. ______________ , no-one was getting a pay rise.

Nevertheless In other words Similarly

7 It is clear, therefore, that the situation in Brazil will improve only slowly. ______________ the economic problems being experienced in Japan, the outlook is slightly more optimistic.

Furthermore In comparison With reference to

8 In order to try to reduce car use in the inner cities, the government has announced new restrictions on company parking spaces and ______________ , a new tax on individual car use.

as well as in addition in the same way

9 Essays must be handed in by the deadline, ______________ they will not be marked.

obviously otherwise as a result

10 ______________ it has been shown that fractures can occur at even relatively low pressures, the use of the material should not be completely discounted.

Nevertheless Because Even though

ANSWERS:
1. However indicates that what follows is something of a contradiction or an exception.

  1. As a ruleshows you are about to make a generalisation.
  2. (Namely) You are actually naming the two islands mentioned, sonamelyis used.
  3. (As a result) The second sentence is a result or consequence of the first.So thatmust be followed by a verb.
  4. (In contrast) The second sentence contrasts vinyl with CDs
  5. ( In other words):The second sentence says the same as the first, but in a much simpler way (reformation)
  6. (With reference to)The second sentence deals with a new aspect/point.
  7. (In addition to)The second sentence deals with a new aspect/point.
  8. (Otherwise) The second part is a consequence of the first.

10.(Eventhough) The idea of concesssion again; the second part is somewhat unexpected.

  • COLLOCATION: Collocation refers to two or more words that often go together. Here’s an example of how to use it so that it sounds natural, since that’s the way to use it:
Natural English… Unnatural English…
the fast train
fast food
the quick train
quick food
a quick shower
a quick meal
WHY COLLOCATION IN ENGLISH
fast shower
fast meal
  • First of all, your language will be more natural and more easily understood.
  • Secondly, you will have alternative and richer ways of expressing yourself.
  • Finally, it is easier for our brains to remember and use language in chunks or blocks rather than as single words.
  • There are several different types of collocation made from combinations of verb, noun, adjective etc. Some of the most common types are:
  • Adverb + Adjective:completely satisfied (NOT downright satisfied)
  • Adjective + Noun:excruciating pain (NOT excruciating joy)
  • Noun + Noun:a surge of anger (NOT a rush of anger)
  • Noun + Verb:lions roar (NOT lions shout)
  • Verb + Noun:commit suicide (NOT undertake suicide)
  • Verb + Expression With Preposition:burst into tears (NOT blow up in tears)
  • Verb + Adverb:wave frantically (NOT wave feverishly)

THE USAGE OF CONDITIONALS (IF)

        If you don’t water flowers, they die.

           If you have a headache, stop watching TV.

The first conditional refers to the present and future.
It expresses a possible condition and
its probable result in the future.

  1. The ‘zero’ conditional, where the tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present:
IF’ CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + simple present
If you heat ice
If it rains
simple present
it melts.
you get wet

In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. They are often used to refer to general truths.

  1. The Type 1 conditional, where the tense in the ‘if clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future
IF’ CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + simple present
If it rains
If you don’t hurry
Simple future
you will get wet
we will miss the train.

In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result.

  1. The Type 2 conditional, where the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:
IF’ CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + simple past
If it rained
If you went to bed earlier
Present conditional
you would get wet
you wouldn’t be so tired.

In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal. They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result.

  1. The Type 3 conditional, where the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional:
IF’ CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE
If + past perfect
If it had rained
If you had worked harder
Perfect conditional
you would have got wet
you would have passed the exam.

In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary to reality.

Prepared by Joy Peter c HSST English

 

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